Selective breeding - humans artificially select the plants or animals that are going to breed so that the genes for particular characteristics remain in the population.
Gene pool - the number of different alleles in a population.
Alleles - different versions of genes.
Genetic Engineering - the transfer of genes responsible for a desirable characteristic form one organism's genome into another organism.
Vector - a virus or a bacterial plasmid.
Bacterial plasmid - a piece of circular DNA found in bacterial cells.
Genetically modified (GM) crops - crops that have had their genes modified.
Gene therapy - inserting working genes into people with inherited diseases.
Cloning - the process of producing genetically identical individuals of an organism either naturally or artificially.
Embryo transplants - animal sperm cells are taken from the parent and used to artificially fertilise an egg cell from a female. Cloned embryos are then implanted into a female.
Adult cell cloning - a nucleus in an unfertilised egg cell is swapped for a nucleus in an adult body cell. It is then implanted into a womb of an adult female.
Speciation - populations of the same species change enough to become reproductively isolated, development of a new species.
Alfred Russel Wallace - came up with the idea of natural selection.
Antibiotic-resistant - bacteria becomes less affected by a particular antibiotic.